David Kehoe:

Cluttering is defined as "a disturbance of fluency involving an abnormally rapid rate and erratic rhythm of speech that impedes intelligibility. Faulty phrasing patterns are usually present so that there are bursts of speech consisting of groups of words that are not related to the grammatical structure of the sentence. The affected person is usually unaware of any communication impairment

Cluttering usually includes repetitions, usually 6-10 units.

They are effortless, usually single syllables, short words, and phrases (PWS primarily repeat initial sounds)

Cluttering may also be characterized by poor concentration and short attention span,

perceptual weakness, poorly organized thinking or speaking before clarifying thoughts

i.e. Clutterer: "I want to go to the st...uh...place where you buy...market st-st- store and I donít have muh-muh ti-ti-time money."

Stutterer: "I want to go to the sssssstore and I donít have muh-muh-muh-muh-money."

Daly:

Obligatory symptoms:

1. Excessive number of repetitions in speech

2. Short attention span and poor concentration

3. lack of (complete) awareness of the problem--unaccompanied by fear, anticipation, any sense of difficulty with specific words or sounds or even a detailed awareness of speaking abnormality.

Other frequently occurring in cluttering

1. excessive speed of delivery (sometimes becomes faster as it proceeds)

contraction of longer words, avoid multisyllabic words, short responses to questions, shortens or omits essential pauses between words, intelligibility is affected

impulsive speech patterns

2. Respiration:causes jerky and explosive speech, truncated sporadic speech

3. articulation-Inconsistent errors, inaccurate and slurred articulatory productions, telescoping of syllables

Articulation problems may be influenced by concomitant poor motor abilities, poor concentration or a combination.

4. monotony and rhythm: they do poorly on rhythm patterns, difficulty singing

5. Motor abilities: clumsy awkward, uncoordinated--activities are accelerated and hasty; hyperactive impulsive and restlessness

6. Disorganized thought processes: may show a lack of inner formulation of speech, word finding problems are common, planning thoughts may benefit child

7. Language difficulties: may start to speak late, word retrieval problems, Problems with grammar and syntax, may have jumbled output: Sew her to a sheet/show her to a seat

8. Reading and Writing difficulties

9. Heredity is a factor

Typical descriptors: impulsive, untidy, careless, hasty, forgetful, clumsy, messy disorganized inarticulate

Possible treatments:

1. Work on enunciating specific speech sounds (placement techniques)

For conscious awareness of sound formation : helps reduce rate

2. A syllablization procedure: slowly pronounce each syllable with equal stress; use of finger tapping. This tends to heighten tactile and kinesthetic feedback awareness.

3. Underline final consonants to prevent slurring of final consonants

4. Concentration: Retelling stories

Then use story sequencing, silent sentence formulation before verbalization

Visualize written words or phrases before pronouncing them.

5. Teach that silence is a part of effective communication

6. Self monitoring is critical : Help clutterer become more aware of his speech problem

Daly recommends Shames and Floranceís (1980) Stutter-Free Speech Program.

a. identify and deliberate practice of specific speech target

b. use of slow smooth speech and continuous phonation first with delayed feedback and later without it.

c. Use of cues to help the person monitor; Use self-evaluation forms and speech contracts for monitoring