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1. Insulin and glucagon are antagonistic hormones because they increase and decrease: (a) calcium; (b) potassium; (c) glucose; (d) cell metabolism.

2. Which of the following is produced in the adrenal cortex? (a) male sex hormones; (b) aldosterone; (c) cortisol; (d) all of the preceding; (e) none of the preceding.

3. Gluconeogenesis is best matched with which hormone? (a) cortisol; (b) ADH; (c) glucagon; (d) thyroxine; (e) none of the preceding

4. What hormone would best fit this description? ----"affects metabolism of cells; necessary for the CNS to develop properly; necessary for normal bone growth; stored extracellularly." : (a) cortisol; (b) growth hormone; (c) T4/T3; (d) thyrocalcitonin

5. Calcium/Phosphate levels in the blood are regulated by: (a) aldosterone; (b) cortisol; (c) ACTH; (d) PTH & calcitonin

6. Where are glucocorticoids produced? (a) adenohypophysis; (b) neurohypophysis; (c) pancreas; (d) testes/ovaries; (e) none of the preceding

7. What hormone is primarily responsible for glucose storage as glycogen; stimulating fat storage, and stimulate protein synthesis? (a) GH; (b) TSH; (c) insulin; (d) cortisol

8. Too much GH in an adult results in: (a) giantism; (b) acromegaly; (c) Simmond's disease; (d) diabetes insipidus

9. Cyclic AMP is best matched with: (a) steroid hormones; (b) protein hormones; (c) muscle cells; (d) the male hormone, testosterone.

10. Classical Endocrine glands such as the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal gland: (a) have ducts; (b) produce many different products; (c) produce hormones; (d) use the product locally

11. Increasing the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland and increasing the growth of the thyroid gland are two functions of: (a) TSH-RH; (b) TSH; (c) T3; (d) thyroglobulin

12. The primary effect of T3 and T4 is to: (a) decrease blood glucose; (b) promote the release of calcitonin; (c) promote heat-generating (metabolic) reactions; (d) stimulate the uptake of iodine by the thyroid

13. The primary effect of calcitonin is to: (a) increase blood glucose; (b) decrease blood glucose; (c) increase excretion of calcium ions in urine; (d) increase blood calcium; (e) decrease blood calcium by blocking release from the bone

14. An increase in blood glucose and an anti-inflammatory effect are important effects of: (a) epinephrine; (b) glucagon; (c) cortisol; (d) insulin; (e) ADH

15. The primary target for glucagon is the: (a) liver; (b) hypothalamus; (c) adrenal cortex; (d) pancreas; (e) kidney

16. The Islets of Langerhans are the endocrine portion of the: (a) adrenal cortex; (b) adrenal medulla; (c) anterior pituitary; (d) posterior pituitary; (e) pancreas

17. The only hormone that promotes the anabolism (building up) of glycogen, fats, and proteins is: (a) GH; (b) insulin; (c) epinephrine; (d) aldosterone; (e) cortisol

18. When a hormone that uses a second messenger binds to a target cell, the next thing that happens is that: (a) phosphodiesterase is activated; (b) a protein kinase is formed; (c) a gene is activated in the nucleus; (d) adenyl cyclase is activated by a G protein; (e) voltage-regulated ion channels open in the cell membrane

19. Most hormones that use a second messenger (cyclic AMP) are: (a) proteins; (b) enzymes; (c) steroids; (d) nucleic acids

20. When a steroid hormone binds to its target cell receptor, it: (a) causes the formation of cyclic-AMP; (b) is converted into cholesterol, which acts as a second messenger; (c) causes the formation of releasing hormones; (d) turns specific genes of the nuclear DNA on or off.

21. Blood glucose is raised by all of the following EXCEPT: (a) glucagon; (b) GH; (c) epinephrine; (d) cortisol; (e) insulin

22. The milk ejection reflex is an important effect of: (a) prolactin; (b) estrogen; (c) progesterone; (d) oxytocin; (e) FSH

23. Thyroglobulin is: (a) the major component of colloid inside follicles; (b) another name for thyroid hormone; (c) the major stimulus for release of thyroid hormones; (d) the protein that transports thyroxine in the blood; (e) the protein that transports TSH to the thyroid gland

24. Long-term therapy with steroid drugs, such as cortsone, can cause osteoporosis and muscle wasting because of: (a) increased blood glucose; (b) increased protein breakdown; (c) bacterial breakdown of bone and muscle; (d) increased protein build up; (e) increased excretion of calcium ions in the urine

25. Diabetes insipidus results from: (a) hyposecretion of insulin; (b) hypersecretion of insulin; (c) hyposecretion of aldosterone; (d) hypersecretion of ADH; (e) hyposecretion of ADH

26. An autoimmune disease in which an antibody mimics the action of TSH is: (a) myxedema; (b) cretinism; (c) acromegaly; (d) Cusing's disease(syndrome); (e) Grave's Disease

27. A "moon face," and heavy fat deposition over the scapula, "buffalo hump" suggests that a person has chronically high levels of: (a) insulin; (b) GH; (c) thyroid hormones; (d) cortisol; (e) estrogens.

28. Suckling is an important stimulus for release of: (a) oxytocin; (b) DHEA; (c) estrogen; (d) FSH; (e) LH

29. The function of adenyl cyclase is to: (a) break down a protein hormone when it binds to its receptor; (b) turn on a G-protein; (c) cause the conversion of ATP to cAMP; (d) activate a protein kinase; inactivate cAMP

30. You have consumed a six-pack of beer in the course of an evening. The combination of fluid intake and alcohol act to inhibit the secretion of: (a) ACTH; (b) ADH; (c) insulin; (d) TSH

31. If levels of PTH are high, one would expect to see: (a) increased osteoblast activity; (b) increased excretion of calcium ions in urine; (c) increased excretion of phosphate ions in urine; (d) decreased calcium concentration of the blood; (e) c and d are both correct

32. Exophthalmos of the eyes is a characteristic sign of: (a) myxedema; (b) cretinism; (c) Graves' Disease; (d) acromegaly; (e) Cushing's Disease

33. Levels of ACTH are high in Addison's disease because: (a)*levels of glucocorticoids are low; (b) levels of glucocorticoids are high; (c) excessive water is being lost with sodium ions; (d) there is a tumor of the corticotrophs in the adenohypophysis

34. Destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas results in: (a) Type I diabetes (insulin-dependent); (b) Type II diabetes (insulin-nondependent); (c) diabetes insipidus; (d) hyperglycemia

35. What hormone causes contraction of smooth muscle surrounding milk glands of the mammary gland? (a) oxytocin; (b) ADH; (c) TSH; (d) GH; (e) prolactin

36. What hormone, along with estrogen, stimulates the development of the mammary glands? (a) oxytocin; (b) ADH; (c) TSH; (d) GH; (e) prolactin

37. What endocrine glands are stimulated by FSH and LH? (a) thyroid; (b) testes/ovaries; (c) adrenal medulla; (d) alpha cells of the pancreas

38. Simmond's Disease is an adult disease of not enough: (a) PTH; (b) GH; (c) ADH; (d) cortisol; (e) insulin

39. Which of the following hormones are manufactured in the hypothalamus? (a) TSH-RF, (b) ACTH-RH; (c) oxytocin; (d) ADH; (e) all of them are

40. A simple goiter results from: (a) lack of TSH ; (b) too much PTH; (c) lack of iodine; (d) lack of iron; (e) autoimmunity

41. The amino acid, tyrosine, has 4 iodines attached to the ring structures. What is the correct name of this hormone? (a) triiodothyronine; (b) tetrahydrogenous; (c) tetraiodothyronine; (d) calcitonin

42. Select the correct disorder for these symptoms: (1) salt craving; (2) high K+; (3) hypotension; (4) hypoglycemis; (5) collapse due to stress-------(a) diabetes, Type I; (b) Cushing's disease(syndrome); (c) diabetes insipidus; (d)*Addison's Disease (hypoadrenalism).

43. When a hormone name ends in "tropic," what does this mean? (a) the hormone stimulates the metabolism of the cell it contacts; (b) it means the hormone affects another "target" endocrine gland; (c) it means the hormone always enters the cell and turns on and off portions of the cell's DNA; (d) it means it is a posterior pituitary hormone

44. Aldosterone acts primarily on two things (a) kidney & sweat glands; (b) carbohydrates and proteins; (c) uterus & mammary glands; (d) blood and immune system

45. What gland produces calcitonin? (a) parathyroids; (b) thyroid; (c) adrenal cortex; (d) adenohypophysis